Sunday, May 16, 2010

VIRAL HEPATITIS

It is liver inflammation due to viral infection. It may be present in acute, fulminant or chronic forms.

WHAT CAUSES IT?
The five unrelated hepatotropic viruses — hepatitis A, B, C, D and E.

COMMON TYPES
Infectious jaundice is caused by hepatitis A virus. Infection with hepatitis A virus can happen through consumption of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis A is generally spread among family members and friends/relatives through the passage of oral secretions or stool (unclean hands). People with hepatitis A are advised to rest, stay hydrated and avoid alcohol. A vaccine is available that will prevent HAV infection for up to 10 years.

viral hepatitis

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that can cause both acute, fulminate and chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis B is blood-borne infection transmitted through blood transfusion, tattoos, sexual intercourse or contact with body fluids.  Blood contact can transmit the virus. Sharing syringes or shaving accessories can be the reason. Patients can recover from the infection completely. A small proportion becomes the carrier of this virus and may develop after about 15 to 20 years and end up in liver disease. Vaccine can prevent infection from hepatitis B.

 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) usually spreads by shared needles among drug abusers, blood transfusion, hemodialysis, and needle sticks. Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection are at risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer after a silent phase of 15 to 20 years.

SYMPTOMS
Many patients infected with hepatitis A, B and C have few or no symptoms of illness. For those who do develop symptoms of viral hepatitis, the most common are flu-like symptoms, which include:
    Loss of appetite
    Nausea
    Vomiting
    Fever
    Weakness
    Tiredness
    Abdomen ache
    Rare common symptoms
     Dark-coloured urine
    Light-coloured stools
    Fever
    Jaundice (yellow appearance to the skin and white portion of the eyes)

DIAGNOSIS
When a patient reports symptoms of fever, fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, darkening of urine, and then develops jaundice, the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis is likely and can be confirmed by blood tests.
On the other hand, patients with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis B and hepatitis C often have no symptoms or only mild non-specific symptoms. Typically, these patients do not have jaundice until the liver damage is advanced. Therefore, these patients can remain undiagnosed for years to decades. Quite a few times chronic hepatitis is diagnosed when blood tests are done for other reasons.

TREATMENT
Treatment of acute viral hepatitis involves relieving symptoms and maintaining adequate intake of fluids. Supportive care is the main modality for acute hepatitis.  Fulminant hepatitis is life threatening which carries a high mortality if liver transplant is not available immediately. Fortunately, the rate of cases is really low.  Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis involves medications to destroy the virus and taking measures to prevent further liver damage.  Patients who develop progressive liver damage/ cancer or significant complications from liver dysfunction, transplant is the best option.

Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C have predisposition to develop liver cancer and should be monitored. Liver resection to remove cancer is the best way. If it is not possible, other options such as radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, radioactive embolization are available.

Source: ToI

5 comments:

Rusty said...

Once again another awesome blog post! I first found out about the plant RNA from peppers (found in humans) from your blog.

On this topic of viruses I often enjoy TED talks that are on the topic of microbiology, genetic sequencing, and viruses.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2od4mp91q9w&playnext_from=TL&videos=QkoTRrKt6To

The end of this video is pretty cool. I had not realized that there were viruses that cause cancer.

Do you like any TED talks too? Oh yeah ( sorry I misspelled the word Mycoplasma in my last comment ) There was a researcher that found Mycoplasma to be the cause of Gulf War Syndrome in his daughter in law who was a helicopter pilot in the war. Very interesting stuff.

I have used the pglo plasmids in recombinant DNA technology. I would be most interested to know if bacterial DNA fragments from GMO food can pass to the bacteria in the stomach and cause genes to express themselves, mutate, or turn off. THANKS!

Rusty said...

As a scientist are you able to understand this U.S. patent and can you explain it to me?

http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org/patents/army.html

Neerali T Desai said...

Hi
The above U.S. patent indicates that new species of Mycoplasma(M. fermentans incognitus) was discovered from AIDS infected patients and this specis can be used to treat Mycoplasma infections.It is break through because new species of mycolpasma can grow only in infected tissues of AIDS patients.

Neerali T Desai said...

All genetically eningeered crops contain bacterial DNA. This DNA contains a genetic element (the so called "CpG motif") that stimulates the immune system to start a sequence of reactions leading to inflammation. Exposure to these genetic elements may lead to promotion of inflammation, arthritis and lymphoma (a malignant blood disease).

Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that DNA is not broken down in the gastro-intestinal tract to the extent formerly believed. Ingested DNA sequences large enough to contain whole genes have remained intact and entered the blood and tissues. This means that eating GE foods may increase the risk of said disorders.
However i have not yet found evidence supporting if it can mutate bacteria in stomach.

Dinosaur said...

Thanks. You are awesome. I am going back to school this week. Your blog has been awesome.